Research & Works Cited

A heartfelt thanks to all the incredible researchers, therapists, and other relationship thought-leaders who inspire and shape our Lovewick content. The better we understand ourselves and our partners, the better relationships we can build. Below we've included both studies cited in the app (most often when unlocking a goal), as well as literature that served as a general foundation for our Lovewick features and designs. Let's get nerdy!

Algoe, S. B., Gable, S. L., & Maisel, N. C. (2010). It's the little things: Everyday gratitude as a booster shot for romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 17(2), 217-233. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01273.x

Arshamian, A., Iannilli, E., Gerber, J. C., Willander, J., Persson, J., Seo, H., Larsson, M. (2013). The functional neuroanatomy of odor evoked autobiographical memories cued by odors and words. Neuropsychologia, 51(1), 123-131. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.10.023

Aune, K. S., & Wong, N. C. (2002). Antecedents and Consequences of Adult Play in Romantic Relationships. Personal Relationships, 9(3), 279-286. doi:10.1111/1475-6811.00019

Baucom, D. H., Epstein, N., Rankin, L. A., & Burnett, C. K. (1996). Assessing relationship standards: The Inventory of Specific Relationship Standards. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(1), 72-88. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.10.1.72

Baucom, D. H., Epstein, N., Rankin, L. A., & Burnett, C. K. (1996). Assessing relationship standards: The Inventory of Specific Relationship Standards. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(1), 72-88. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.10.1.72

Bazzini, D. G., Stack, E. R., Martincin, P. D., & Davis, C. P. (2006). The Effect of Reminiscing about Laughter on Relationship Satisfaction. Motivation and Emotion, 31(1), 25-34. doi:10.1007/s11031-006-9045-6

Birnbaum, G. E., Reis, H. T., Mizrahi, M., Kanat-Maymon, Y., Sass, O., & Granovski-Milner, C. (2016). Intimately connected: The importance of partner responsiveness for experiencing sexual desire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(4), 530-546. doi:10.1037/pspi0000069

Borgonovi, F. (2008). Doing well by doing good. The relationship between formal volunteering and self-reported health and happiness. Social Science & Medicine, 66(11), 2321-2334. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.01.011

Burke, T. J., & Young, V. J. (2012). Sexual Transformations and Intimate Behaviors in Romantic Relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 49(5), 454-463. doi:10.1080/00224499.2011.569977

Carey, J. R., Clicque, S. H., Leighton, B. A., & Milton, F. (1976). A Test of Positive Reinforcement of Customers. Journal of Marketing, 40(4), 98. doi:10.2307/1251075

Carrere, S., & Gottman, J. M. (1999). Predicting Divorce among Newlyweds from the First Three Minutes of a Marital Conflict Discussion. Family Process, 38(3), 293-301. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.1999.00293.x

Carstensen, L. L., Gottman, J. M., & Levenson, R. W. (1995). Emotional behavior in long-term marriage. Psychology and Aging, 10(1), 140-149. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.10.1.140

Cheung, E. O., Gardner, W. L., & Anderson, J. F. (2014). Examining People’s Emotion-Regulation Relationships and Their Consequences for Well-Being. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6(4), 407-414. doi:10.1177/1948550614564223

Dewall, C. N., Maner, J. K., Deckman, T., & Rouby, D. A. (2011). Forbidden fruit: Inattention to attractive alternatives provokes implicit relationship reactance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(4), 621-629. doi:10.1037/a0021749

Feeney, B. C. (2007). The dependency paradox in close relationships: Accepting dependence promotes independence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(2), 268-285. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.92.2.268

Feeney, B. C., & Thrush, R. L. (2010). Relationship influences on exploration in adulthood: The characteristics and function of a secure base. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(1), 57-76. doi:10.1037/a0016961

Finkel, E. J. (2018). The all-or-nothing marriage: How the best marriages work. New York, NY: Dutton.

Finkel, E. J., Slotter, E. B., Luchies, L. B., Walton, G. M., & Gross, J. J. (2013). A Brief Intervention to Promote Conflict Reappraisal Preserves Marital Quality Over Time. Psychological Science, 24(8), 1595-1601. doi:10.1177/0956797612474938

Floyd, K., Boren, J. P., Hannawa, A. F., Hesse, C., Mcewan, B., & Veksler, A. E. (2009). Kissing in Marital and Cohabiting Relationships: Effects on Blood Lipids, Stress, and Relationship Satisfaction. Western Journal of Communication, 73(2), 113-133. doi:10.1080/10570310902856071

Fraley, B., & Aron, A. (2004). The effect of a shared humorous experience on closeness in initial encounters. Personal Relationships, 11(1), 61-78. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2004.00071.x

Gable, S. L., Reis, H. T., Impett, E. A., & Asher, E. R. (2004). What Do You Do When Things Go Right? The Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Benefits of Sharing Positive Events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(2), 228-245. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.87.2.228

Gillespie, B. J., Peterson, G., & Lever, J. (2019). Gendered perceptions of fairness in housework and shared expenses: Implications for relationship satisfaction and sex frequency. Plos One, 14(3). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0214204

Goldin, P. R., Mcrae, K., Ramel, W., & Gross, J. J. (2008). The Neural Bases of Emotion Regulation: Reappraisal and Suppression of Negative Emotion. Biological Psychiatry, 63(6), 577-586. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2007.05.031

Gordon, C. L., Arnette, R. A., & Smith, R. E. (2011). Have you thanked your spouse today?: Felt and expressed gratitude among married couples. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(3), 339-343. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.10.012

Gordon, A. M., & Chen, S. (2013). The Role of Sleep in Interpersonal Conflict. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(2), 168-175. doi:10.1177/1948550613488952

Gottman, J. M., Driver, J., & Tabares, A. (2015). Repair During Marital Conflict in Newlyweds: How Couples Move from Attack–Defend to Collaboration. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 26(2), 85-108. doi:10.1080/08975353.2015.1038962

Gottman, J. M., Coan, J., Carrere, S., & Swanson, C. (1998). Predicting Marital Happiness and Stability from Newlywed Interactions. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60(1), 5. doi:10.2307/353438

Gottman, J. M., & Silver, N. (2015). The seven principles for making marriage work: A practical guide from the country's foremost relationship expert. New York, NY: Harmony Books.

Hazan, C., & Shaver, P. (2017). Romantic Love Conceptualized as an Attachment Process. Interpersonal Development, 283-296. doi:10.4324/9781351153683-17

Herbenick, D., Fu, T., Arter, J., Sanders, S. A., & Dodge, B. (2017). Women's Experiences With Genital Touching, Sexual Pleasure, and Orgasm: Results From a U.S. Probability Sample of Women Ages 18 to 94. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 44(2), 201-212. doi:10.1080/0092623x.2017.1346530

Hess, J. A., & Coffelt, T. A. (2012). Verbal Communication about Sex in Marriage: Patterns of Language Use and Its Connection with Relational Outcomes. Journal of Sex Research, 49(6), 603-612. doi:10.1080/00224499.2011.619282

Hite, S. (1976 and 2005). The Hite report: A nationwide study of female sexuality. New York, NY: Seven Stories.

Holt-Lunstad, J., Birmingham, W. A., & Light, K. C. (2008). Influence of a “Warm Touch” Support Enhancement Intervention Among Married Couples on Ambulatory Blood Pressure, Oxytocin, Alpha Amylase, and Cortisol. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(9), 976-985. doi:10.1097/psy.0b013e318187aef7

Huston, T. L., Caughlin, J. P., Houts, R. M., Smith, S. E., & George, L. J. (2001). The connubial crucible: Newlywed years as predictors of marital delight, distress, and divorce. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(2), 237-252. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.80.2.237

Impett, E. A., Strachman, A., Finkel, E. J., & Gable, S. L. (2008). Maintaining sexual desire in intimate relationships: The importance of approach goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(5), 808-823. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.94.5.808

Janssen, E. & Bancroft, J. (2006). The Dual Control Model: The Role of Sexual Inhibition & Excitation in Sexual Arousal and Behavior. In E. Janssen (Author), The psychophysiology of sex. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Joel, S., Gordon, A. M., Impett, E. A., Macdonald, G., & Keltner, D. (2013). The Things You Do for Me. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(10), 1333-1345. doi:10.1177/0146167213497801

Johnson, S. (2008). Hold Me Tight: Seven Conversations for a Lifetime of Love. New York, NY: Little Brown & Co.

Joyal, C. C., Cossette, A., & Lapierre, V. (2015). What Exactly Is an Unusual Sexual Fantasy? The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12(2), 328-340. doi:10.1111/jsm.12734

Krasnow, I. (2012). Secret lives of wives: Women share what it really takes to stay married. New York, NY: Gotham Books.

Kuperberg, A. (2014). Age at Coresidence, Premarital Cohabitation, and Marriage Dissolution: 1985-2009. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(2), 352-369. doi:10.1111/jomf.12092

Lawler-Row, K. A., Karremans, J. C., Scott, C., Edlis-Matityahou, M., & Edwards, L. (2008). Forgiveness, physiological reactivity and health: The role of anger. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 68(1), 51-58. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2008.01.001

Matthews, G. (2015). The Effectiveness of Four Coaching Techniques in Enhancing Goal Achievement: Writing Goals, Formulating Action Steps, Making a Commitment, and Accountability. In Psychology Abstracts 9th Annual International Conference on Psychology (p. 41). Athens, Greece. Retrieved from

Marigold, D. C., Holmes, J. G., & Ross, M. (2007). More than words: Reframing compliments from romantic partners fosters security in low self-esteem individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(2), 232-248. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.92.2.232

Maxwell, J. A., Muise, A., Macdonald, G., Day, L. C., Rosen, N. O., & Impett, E. A. (2017). How implicit theories of sexuality shape sexual and relationship well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112(2), 238-279. doi:10.1037/pspi0000078

Mehrabian, A. (1981). Silent messages: Implicit communication of emotions and attitudes. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub.

Muise, A., Harasymchuk, C., Day, L. C., Bacev-Giles, C., Gere, J., & Impett, E. A. (2019). Broadening your horizons: Self-expanding activities promote desire and satisfaction in established romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 116(2), 237-258. doi:10.1037/pspi0000148

Perel, E. (2007). Mating in captivity: Unlocking erotic intelligence. New York, NY: Harper.

Pinsof, W. M., Breunlin, D. C., Chambers, A. L., Solomon, A. H., & Russell, W. P. (2015). Integrative problem-centered metaframeworks approach. In A. S. Gurman, J. L. Lebow, & D. K. Snyder (Eds.), Clinical handbook of couple therapy (p. 161–191). The Guilford Press.

Reis, H. T., Clark, M. S., & Holmes, J. G. (2004). Perceived partner responsiveness as an organizing construct in the study of intimacy and closeness. In D. J. Mashek & A. Aron (Eds.), Handbook of closeness and intimacy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Rind, B., & Bordia, P. (1995). Effect of Server's "Thank You" and Personalization on Restaurant Tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(9), 745-751. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1995.tb01772.x

Robinson, E. A., & Price, M. G. (1980). Pleasurable behavior in marital interaction: An observational study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48(1), 117-118. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.48.1.117

Sagarin, B. J., Cutler, B., Cutler, N., Lawler-Sagarin, K. A., & Matuszewich, L. (2008). Hormonal Changes and Couple Bonding in Consensual Sadomasochistic Activity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38(2), 186-200. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9374-5

Slatcher, R. B. (2010). When Harry and Sally met Dick and Jane: Creating closeness between couples. Personal Relationships, 17(2), 279-297. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01276.x

Solomon, A. H. (2017). Loving bravely: 20 lessons to get you ready for the love of a lifetime. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Uhls, Y. T., Michikyan, M., Morris, J., Garcia, D., Small, G. W., Zgourou, E., & Greenfield, P. M. (2014). Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues. Computers in Human Behavior, 39, 387-392. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.05.036

Wood, A. M., Froh, J. J., & Geraghty, A. W. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: A review and theoretical integration. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 890-905. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.005

Zhao, X., & Epley, N. (2020). Kind words do not become tired words: Undervaluing the positive impact of frequent compliments. Self and Identity, 1-22. doi:10.1080/15298868.2020.1761438


If you know of a study that could inspire a Relationship Goal, we'd love to hear from you! Shoot us an email at, or DM us through our social channels. We're always looking for cutting-edge research to translate into real world value for couples.